The Australian Government Database, Know Ware [Complete]

Navigate to Apple II Software, scroll to T for The Australian

Presented online is a complete archive of the Apple II software, The Australian Government Database by Know Ware (1991).

I found the software very easy to use and is even more relevant in 2019 as the country seems to be ruled by politics opposed to traditional governance.  One fact was I did not know Australian took the best established policies from nations such as America and Switzerland and distilled them into our constitution.

This software is a real gem in Australian software, lost to world and not even held by the National Library of Australia. No holdings exist.  Although my mother did say ‘If you want something done properly, you best do it yourself!’.

Google Chrome001.jpg

In addition to the disk images, a full scan of the folder cover, manual and disk labels are included.

Donated by Ashley Snare.



Days of the Week

Navigate to Apple II Software, scroll to D for Days

A quirky of disk of 13 programs to play around with days of the week, spelling, multiplication and grammar.  The title game appears the most polished with  custom fonts and colour, but the rest of the disk is 40-column text only.  Odd titles like Alphabagels lets you type three letters then it appends them with random words like ‘bagel’ for fun. Enough said really.

(C) 1980, Appleswap


KansasFest 2017 Session – Disk Imaging with Applesauce Presented by John K Morris.

KansasFest Session – Disk Imaging with Applesauce

Presented by John K. Morris

Thursday, July 20 2017


John will discuss the development of the Applesauce floppy drive controller that enables you to connect your Apple II floppy drive directly to your modern computer via USB. He will also discuss how to use the software and various other topics around disk imaging and copy protection.

08:45 Disk imaging – I had a problem with my EDD card and I wanted to do something different.  I embarked on this journey to capture disk information in a different way.

What I ended up building was a hardware solution.  It is a floppy controller that allows you to connect a Disk II to your computer over USB.

The nuts and bolts: What is actually on a disk?

There is a common idea that a floppy disk contains 0s and 1s.  A floppy disk only contains 1s. We have a strip of magnetism and everything faces either north or south.  As the head rolls over this information, or the information rolls past the head. The head picks it up and if the bits there are north facing, it sends an ac current one way, and if they are south, it sends the current the other way.

What the drive does is, there’s one chip at the heart of it: the 3470.  It looks for the current to change one way or the other.  SO whenever it changes from north to south or south to north, it sends a message out.  That message is a 1, a one micro-second long pulse to denote one.  0s are derived by the lack of impulses over time.  The A][ expects a pulse every 4 micro seconds. If there isn’t one happening there, when it does find one… it says’ Hey it’s been about 8 micro seconds, that’s a zero, I don’t want that’.  So a gap makes 0s.

You’ve heard the term Flux? That is the transition north to south or south to north.  The Applesauce connects up and it reads the flux transitions directly.  It grabs every transition on the disk and it measures the amount of time of nanoseconds in-between these.  It can take that stream and create bitstreams, nibble streams and take it all the way from being pulses to data. Basically what the floppy drive controller does.

Applesauce shown on the screen, Fast Disk Imager mode.  John comments he pulled a few disks from upstairs for demonstration.  he presses start and it shows tracks being copied, successful in ~12 seconds. This is “Early Games”. Image file saved.

Here we have Early Games, the .DSK file is double clicked to launch with Virtual ][.  The game boots quickly and is shown working.

What we witnessed was many steps in that 12 seconds.  It’s puling the fluxes, turning them into bits, then into nibbles, then de-encoding it. This has created a disk image.  This is for unprotected disks.  Apple sauce has a number of techniques for data repair.  If the address parts of the disk are made, it will hunt for chunks of data and bring things back.

if you have bad nibbles it’ll go into the flux transitions that make up the nibbles to determine potential values that nibble could have been, then verify against a checksum, to re-create a chunk of lost data.

Many different techniques are employed.

All this relies on the fact the disk has a known structure.   ProDOS, DOS 3.3 and so on.  When DOS works it

It has address prologues and checksums, because real the Disk II isn’t that accurate.

Question: So you’re telling me when it creates the disk image that it’s actually verifying the data ?

Answer: Yes.

Question: Does EDD do this?

Answer: No, EDD does not do any validating.

There are many ways to do data recovery when there is a set structure, allowing for aggressive methods.

When it comes to copy protection, it kind of turned into a wild west out there. All DOS 3.3 address chunks start with the beginning of address information a sector D95A6.  Everything is logically laid out in one big loop with little keys in there. As it finds the keys, it says OK this is a sector, look at the sector number and go to read the data following it – that is your sector.  Publishers didn’t like that because you could copy everything. Checks sector numbers to grab data and that’s your sector.  Publishers first changed sector recognition with cat and mouse games. EG moved address information to D97A6.   Affects Copy II plus.  From there bit copiers were effective in grabbing bits / raw information as they didn’t care about whether it’s copying a sector or not.  It just grabs the raw information.

The copy protection folks came up with, well one of many.  One was an exploitation of the 3470 Drive II chipset (creates the pulses that makes the bits).  They noticed you can’t have more than two 00s in a row on a disk because you can’t have too much time of the 3470 chip not seeing anything.  When this happens, the chip thinks it’s not doing its job well so it uses an amplifier and keeps turning it up to find the data it’s supposed to be finding.  Until it gets to the point that it’s amplified noise as random data.  This is why you can’t have more than two 00s in a row – this creates random bits from the amplifier.

To defeat bit copiers, publishes added areas of no transitions.  Bit copies run and see the ‘bits’, spin the disc around again and the drive controller has made the data different.  We know that this is a real disk because these bits keep changing.  When you put it into Copy II plus or EDD, it runs through and it hits this no transition area and random bits spit out.  And Copy II Plus thinks of those bits as real, it doesn’t understand if it’s real or fake.  It grabs those and cements these as being part of the image.  When the software runs, it comes to this pattern of bits here  Spins around ‘Hey this is the same’.  Spins around ‘This isn’t changing’ leading to detection of a copied disk.

Question from the audience – nibbles.  DOS 3.3 and above has a finite six-and-two encoding (16-sectors) where logic sequences take 256 bytes / sector, spit out 342 nibbles (with checksum) to represent the bytes.  This increases size but it allows for encoding without more than two zeros.


With DOS 3.2, 13-sector disks they used. They required five-and-three encoding to make 410 nibbles. The rules for earlier encoding and state machine chip was that there could only be one zero. Moving on to DOS 3.3 they came up with six and two to shrink packets from 410 to 342 to gain room for the additional three sectors.  An intermediate stage in there solely to convert into binary.  How do you store a 0?!

Then questions is presented – how do you actually store 0?

So they came up for a way to make bit copies suffer, a lot.

When you have a bit stream you have to establish what is real and what is fake.  Each bit is assumed to take four-microseconds.  Transitions are variable, drive speed is constantly wiggling around.  In fact, it’s a miracle its works at all!

Woz did an amazing job taking the components to make what he did.

Protected disks need flux imaging.

Software demonstration:  Imaging of “Mastertype”, protected, with Applesauce.  Introducing flux imaging, this records every flux transition on the disk and the number of microseconds between each.  Applesauce can locate where every flux transitions exists on the media itself.  It has as special sensor to be mounted inside a Drive II which watches the spindle to keep the alignment of tracks.  A visual representation is shown, representing the density of flux across a 5.25” disk media.  The grey intensity of each pixel in Applesauce shows flux.  The more you have the brighter it will be.

Question: What do you do with areas of no transitions?

John: Real bits we can get fine but we still need to deal with the problems of fake bits (from amplification).  Luckily real bits don’t really move around as they maintain a consistent timing to their neighbours.  Allows for determination of what lines up – Applesauce grabs five copies of each quarter track.  Comparison – is this consistent, is the timing between these bits consistent?  When it gets to an area of no transitions it can see solid and random bits. Random bits being thrown in where they dance around and number change, turns into a big garble  Looking over multiple reads, things move around inconsistently.  Applesauce will see these bits are being inconsistent and find the the extent of these inconsistencies (generated by 3470) and eliminate the fake bits. So it will pull the false things out.

*Jeremy comments EDD is just ONE copy of quarter tracks and therefore can make no comparison. EDD is at the mercy of the drive controller giving it accurate bits in one pass.

09:08 Flux transitions shown on screen.  Track 0 on this outside edge …. we have a bunch of bits in a stream but where things are starting?  That is done with sync nibbles FF followed by 00 which delays the system.  Four of these in a row tells the logic to bring it into sync.  Four sets of sync nibbles guarantee aligned of data.

These vertical lines here are sync areas. This is where it wants to make sure the data following it is properly

These sync fields allow for data to be read with correct synchronisation.  This effectively leaves watermarks.  On a regular disk II, all these are skewed as it has no idea of the position of the disk when it writes a sector.  ‘OK next sector’, writing a whole track.  By having each sector aligned this way (on slide) shows high quality equipment generated this floppy, possibly a whole set of tracks written once.  There area lot of variance in drive speed – this can be managed. It’ll write a big area of sync, come around and overwrite the end to make sure a long set of bits all around. It’s the safest way to do that.

Referring to the on screen flux image  –  a lot of nothing is on track 0 which is unusual but important to starting things up.  Applesauce generated a RAW file / disk imaging complete 09:11.

We want to improve the ability to recognise and analyse disks even with older disks failing.  The work that Mark is doing is trying to save them before they are gone.  This is another way to do that.

A reminder that five flux transitions are capture for later processing.  You can get enough information resulting in intact protection.  Johns explains his excitement when finding new protection schemes and exploring the craziness that publishers went to.   The brilliance is far more interesting than the content of the disc itself. “Sometimes I look at a disc, wow what are they doing here?  I spend two hours spelunking a disk… it’s truly fascinating and really an art form.  Usually far more interesting than the content of the data!”.

A2R file is generated at approximately 35mb – from this we can generate other formats.   This A2R process is future proof.  No more interpretation of data, we are saving real flux transitions in it’s lowest, raw form.

Reminder: Nibs can contain some protection but when it comes down to it there isn’t a format that exists (until A2R) that maintains protection. A2R can extract everything and generate different formats of disk images.  The raw is the raw timing of flux transition – no questions involved “is this a zero?”.  Raw bits captured in their lowest form.

Choplifer with spiral tracking demonstrated.  Disc author did not use sectors.

Spiral pattern is shown – comment 1x1px PNG images, representing progress are saved.  Realtime. black 0 white ~255.  Under construction.

Sporadic pattern shown (game Frogger).   Entire game exists on the edge with really tightly packed, interleaved quarter tracks.  Insanity

Hardware is straightforward, leaving software to do heavy lifting.  Accurate to approximately 125 nano seconds.

Question: When can we buy this?  John jokes a few things are exploding /… fire bad …. /  more things to do in standardisation of images so lets give it a month.

Question: Alternative track lengths.

John: No reason why it couldn’t image up to 40 tracks but currently 35 track limit.

Question: Can this be used portions of unprotected damaged discs?

john: Yes.  when it finds damaged areas, it can point it out and show you what flux transitions do exist.   A new tool is being worked on, like a nibble editor, to look at individual flux transitions.

From this it can interpolate what should be there (in .DSK creation).

Question: Unidisk

john: Disk II allows for sync sensor, Unidisk is too small to accommodate this.  Sync sensor goes und

Presentation ends 09:20

Flowers of Crystal, 4Mation

Navigate to Apple II Software, scroll to F for Flowers

An interesting upload is Flowers of Crystal by the British publisher 4Mation.  I was the first to publish their Apple II version of ‘Grannies Garden’ online (Donated by Leslie Ayling) and here is another 4Mation title.   I understand they ported their games to three platforms – The BBC, Microbee and Apple II.  No manual for this but the disk label is provided.

The game plays like an interactive story book with large font.  Donated by Ashley Snare



Science Explorers Skeletons, Scholastic

Navigate to Apple II Software, under S for Science

Presented online for the first time is Science Explorers Skeletons, published by  Scholastic Wizware. Copyright to Prentice Hall (C) 1990.

For the Apple II 128K comes a educational title that features fully animated high resolution graphics that look fantastic.  I’d day each screen has four frames of animation so the screenshots don’t do justice to this fun presentation of physiology.  Users play with yes or no questions, multiple choice facts and narration to learn about our skeletal system.

If you’re looking for seemingly endless Apple //e graphics then give this a shot.


San Mateo County Office of Education Softswap Disk 47

Navigate to Apple II Software, under S for San Mateo

How this made it from San Mateo, California to a tiny country town of WALLA WALLA NSW in the 1980s is a testament to piracy!  Anyway presented here is San Mateo County Office of Education Softswap Disk 47. features other disks from this series so I’m happy we’ve got another one online.

Donated by Ashley Snare.


Australian Oregon Trail – Outback Explorer, Dataworks [Complete]

Navigate to Apple II Software, under A for Australian

Making its online debut is Outback ExplorerAustralian’s clone answer to the wildly successful multi-platform Oregon Trail.   I say this as you plan for an expedition by purchasing live stock, water and equipment against a budget and time.  I am unsure if you can die from dysentry though!  Please play through it and let me know how far the similarities extend.

I chose to type sections from the manual to help detail bibliographic information

The author – Ian Holowoko, former deputy principal for the Victorian Ministry of Education.  Bachelor of Education degree from La Trobe University.  Other software includes Working with Words – Thesaurus Generator and Developing Living Skills.

Note: I would be so happy if these software titles surfaced!

The programmer – Grahame Willis of Monash University.

3.01 Introduction.  Outback Explorer simulates the exploration of unknown lands. Students must form and equip an expedition part and then set off on their adventures.  … You might be looking for gold or for new grazing land … or rescue survivors of a shipwreck.

Donated by Ashley Snare


Outback Explorer, Dataworks001Outback Explorer, Dataworks002Outback Explorer, Dataworks003

OpenEmulator001Outback Explorer resconstructed coverOpenEmulator002OpenEmulator003OpenEmulator004OpenEmulator005OpenEmulator006

Australian software manuals added

Ashley Snare of Canberra, Australia has donated Apple II software to JB Retro Collect for archiving.  New, unpreserved software titles were imaged and I’ve been able to scan manuals to existing titles, which is significant as the educational software market was big on teachers resources.

Previously disk imaged titles now completed with manual include:

  • Solar System Database now has the original folder art and manual.
  • Outback Explorer by Dataworks (an Australian Oregon Trail clone)
  • The Explorer’s Database by Know Ware
  • The Riddle Of Trumpalar is complete with student black-line masters, teachers resources, original novel and map.  Also included are 140kb disk images with label scans
  • The Australian Government Database, another new title complete with folder art and manual
  • StoryTree by George Brackett, Published by Scholastic Wizware – manual only as the disk is unreadable
  • Windows Into Literacy – Magic Animal Frog Dog, Dataworks

Michael Saunders of Sydney, Australia has donated an Australian software package designed to promote literacy in Dyslexic children.  It is called DIRECT Helper.  This is complete.

Direct Helper folder coverFinder001Finder002Explorer's Database (1987) folder frontFinder003Finder004Learn about insects001Outback Explorer resconstructed coverSolar System Database folder frontThe Australian Government Database folder cover

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